The biggest misconception that most people have about these corrective methods is thinking that copyediting and editorial proofreading are the same. While they are similar, they are also very different.
Proofreading is done after a body of work is completed, but before it goes to publication or is distributed. It’s the final step taken in the completion of a work. A proofreader’s job is to scan the piece for grammar, syntax, and punctuation errors. The meanings of words and terminology are not important to a proofreader. Their main job is to focus on accuracy in a body of work that is otherwise finished and ready to go “out the door”.
While proofreaders concentrate on the final and overall presentation of the body of work, copyeditors concentrate on the details and terminology in a manuscript or draft. They perform fact checking, question sentences that raise doubt or seem non-plausible, and ensure that there is consistency throughout the piece. Although copyeditors don’t always implement the changes they are recommending, they always note them for the author to consider. Like proofreaders, they also check for spelling, grammar, and punctuation errors, but in a text that hasn’t been formatted
There are three types of copyediting: baseline (light), medium, and substantial (heavy).
In this type of editing, you will:
- Correct spelling, punctuation, and grammar
- Correct incorrect usage of words and verify cross-references
- Make sure that spelling, grammar, capitalizations, and abbreviations are consistent
- Make sure that lists are in the proper sequence, such as in alphabetical order
- Make note of the first references to figures and tables
- Check content to detect spots where copy is missing or inaccurate, such as misspellings or misuse. You do not rewrite or add text to accomplish smoother transitions or to help with structure.
In this type of editing, you will do everything listed for baseline editing plus:
- Change the text and headers for parallel structure (parallel structure is expressing similar ideas in similar ways). The following sentence is an example of parallel structure: She liked to dance, sing, and act. The next sentence is not parallel structure. She liked to dance, sing and acting.
- Make note of inappropriate figures of speech
- Check that previews or summaries match the main content
- Make sure the plot progresses and check for consistency in character traits and story lines (Fiction Manuscripts.)
- Enforce style and tone throughout an entire body of work
- Change passive voice to active voice when required
- Make note of incorrect statements
In this type of editing you will do everything listed for baseline and medium plus:
- Improve the flow of text and contribute to the overall quality of the writing
- Suggest actual changes rather than just pointing out problems
- Enforce a tone if the author or publisher requests it
- Remove wordiness
- Make transitions smoother and rearrange sentences to make the text easier to read.
- Suggest additions and deletions at the sentence and paragraph level
- Participate in the actual re-writing of the text, if author and publisher agree.
In today’s mercurial world, where getting information out quickly and succinctly is key in making a mark on the Internet, there is a growing demand for web content writers. Great content often translates into real revenue for online businesses.
Online entrepreneurs/owners depend on these writers for two major issues:
- Content that entices and engages visitors, so that they stay browsing in the owner’s website. This operates on the premise that visitors who stay longer surfing a particular site [which offer some sort of product/service] will eventually become clients/ customers.
- Content that is keyword smart, meaning composition must contain relevant keywords/phrases [typed by users for searching] associated with the actual site for better Search Engine indexing and ranking.
Additionally to these are user readability, usability, together with being up-to-date so that the company represented in the site conveys a sense of awareness on what is current and new to the industry in which they are operating.
The content is like a sales representative or marketing person of the company. Its function therefore is to interact with the visitor to the site about the purchase.
Website content writing aims at two things i.e., relevance and searchability. Relevance means that the meanings represented by texts should be useful and beneficial to readers. searchability indicates usage of keywords to help ease findings by search engines.
A memoir writer (also known as a memoirist) will help you leave your personal or business legacy to family and friends. She will spend time interviewing you and your family about your phenomenal journey through life.
This is the story of three elves: Beatrice, the “overflowing with too many ideas,” writer, Maxie, her “details, just give me the details,” copyeditor, and Ginger, her “sharp as a tack, eyes like an eagle,” proofreader.
At one end of a very long, marble table sits Beatrice, who is just finishing a third draft of her manuscript, “Santa’s Elves Steal Christmas, ” a.k.a “Santa’s Elves Take Back the Night.” She loves being a writer because she can spew out all her ideas without worrying (at least not too much), whether or not “who or whom” is being used correctly as in on page 100, which reads:
“Santa was found sleeping with whom???” asked Rudolph.
(Or should it be who??? Hmmmm. Maxie will know for sure.)
Or whether, on page 67, her mentioning that “in 1982 Santa decided to skip Christmas altogether because of excruciating pain caused by kidney stones,” is a provable fact on wikipedia.
Or if on page 23, when she first refers to Santa’s elves as “cheap labor,” and then later, on page 50 as “aficionados” might be a problem for the reader.
No. Beatrice rests assured that her relentlessly reliable copyeditor Maxie, sitting at the middle of table, will take her manuscript and make sure that all of the above will be properly scrutinized, as well as confirming she has spelled her words correctly. (Beatrice can never remember if the word recommendation has two c’s or two m’s, but Maxie will for sure!). And when she is being emphatic, as in “Santa Skipped Christmas.”, Maxie will make sure she uses an exclamation point, and not a boring old period.
He might read a sentence that he believes doesn’t flow as in, “Mrs. C. tried to get Mr. C to lay off red meat. Mrs. C. gave him kale. He absolutely loves red meat.” He may recommend (Is that spelled right? Better make sure I spell check before sending this off) that Beatrice change it to, “Mrs. C tried to get Mr. C to lay off red meat, which he absolutely loves. She offered him kale instead.”
But Beatrice has been know to be a bit stubborn, so we’ll see if she takes Maxie’s recommendation.
Now when Maxie is finished, the manuscript will move into the last phase of the washing cycle, the spin cycle if you will. Ginger, who sits at the opposite end of the table, could care less if things flow or don’t flow. She wants the manuscript to look presentable, just like her matching elfin green hat, coat and shoes. She will review the text in such a way that may seem like she is not actually reading it all, and might miss the deeper meaning of things.
“If I want deep, I’ll watch Oprah,” she says.
She will place her GIGANTIC magnifying glass over her miniscule right eye, and look for glaring punctuation problems. She may even mark up the pages and margins using her secret agent proofreader marks (which Beatrice absolutely hates).
Ginger loves rules and wants everyone to follow them, especially Beatrice. As in, always put a comma after the adverb therefore, when a semi-colon precedes it so that the thoughts are connected.
Beatrice could care less about these rules, or any rules for that matter, which is why she has written this “tell-all tale,” about Santa, Mrs. C, and his mistress Vixen—no not the reindeer, but the woman that fourth reindeer is secretly named after.
Ginger will give it the last look over, making sure there are no glaring mistakes, and that the final, overall presentation is PERFECT. Once Ginger gives it her OK, (which doesn’t happen so easily) and Beatrice begrudgingly incorporates the changes, it’s off to the printer. And Maxie and Ginger eagerly wait for Beatrice to deliver yet another steamy story that they can sink their elfin webbed hands into.